apirolio pcb

Polychlorinated biphenyls have a low vapour pressure, high viscosity, minimal water solubility, high dielectric constant, high thermal stability and resistance to chemicals. Note: Polychlorinated biphenyls have a low vapour pressure, high viscosity, minimal water solubility, high dielectric constant, high thermal stability and resistance to

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are mixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons that have been used extensively since 1930 in a variety of industrial uses, including as dielectrics in transformers and large capacitors, as heat exchange fluids, as paint additives, in carbonless copy paper and in plastics.


industrial, commercial and domestic applications. PCB applications are commonly categorised as either open or closed applications as follows: Open applications: use as heat exchange fluids, hydraulic oils, lubricating oils and as additives in paints, plastics, solvents, adhesives and cements.


a mixture of various PCB congeners, through progressive chlorination of batches of biphenyl until a certain target percentage of chlorine by weight was achieved. Commercial mixtures with higher percentages of chlorine contained higher proportions of the more heavily chlorinated congeners, but all congeners could be expected to


electric fluid. A PCB mixture with 54% chlorine (so-called “pentachlorobiphenyl”) was used from 1949 to 1965 and subsequently substituted with Pyralene 3010,* with a chlorine content of 42% (so-called “trichlorobiphenyl”) and the following average compositions: 9%dichlorobiphenyls, 60% trichlorobiphenyls, 30% tetrachlorobiphenyls, and 1 %pentachlorobiphenyls.

history of pcb & its uses During the 1930s electrical engineers expressed the need for a synthetic electrical insulation fluid for transformer and capacitor installations where fire was a particular hazard.


Other trade names used for PCB products in the past include – SANTOTHERM FR (UK) Heat transfer prior to 1972 . THERMINOL FR (USA) Heat transfer prior to 1972 . PYDRAUL (USA) Hydraulic applications before 1972 . The trade names SANTOTHERM, THERMINOL and PYDRAUL are still in use but these now refer to non-chlorinated products.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous and persistent organic pollutants generated exclusively from human sources and found in the environment as several congeners (e.g. Apirolio, produced in Italy and used for electrical transformers).

I PCB finiscono in atmosfera per volatilizzazione ed attraverso i venti possono essere diffusi per migliaia di chilometri. Il diffuso utilizzo del PCB fino ai primi anni ’80 …


‘contaminated oil transformers’. PCB liquids are known generically as ‘askarels’, but PCBs used in transformers are also known by their product names, such as Clophen, Pyralene, Inerteen, Apirolio or Kaneclor. Transformers filled with one of these liquids are …


Illegal or improper dumping of PCB wastes Leaks or releases from electrical transformers containing PCBs Disposal of PCB-containing consumer products into municipal or other landfills not designed to handle hazardous waste Burning some wastes in municipal and industrial incinerators PCBs do not readily break down once in the environment. They can

Abstract. Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio).

Nov 8, 1979 – ABSTRACT Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and of Occupational Hygiene and Toxic

Interestingly, the addition of Apirolio did not negatively affect the microbial community but did stimulate the degradation of the freshly added PCBs. The plant and compost co-presence did not substantially increase PCB degradation, but it increased the microbial abundance and activity and the occurrence of α-Proteobacteria and fungi.

PCBs, PCB waste (including protective clothing that has been contaminated with PCBs) and equipment containing PCBs must only be disposed of by specialist waste contracting firms which are licensed by the Waste Regulation Authority.

A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols and numbers.

Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Volume 66, 2016 – Issue 10. Fenchlor and Apirolio in Italy, and Sovol in the Soviet Union. According to previous reports, there were about 1,326,000 tons PCBs produced and used since 1930; the production details are shown in Table 1 2000 PCB-blood levels in teachers,

In blood, total PCB concentrations from 88 to 1319 micrograms/kg were observed: comparing the blood concentrations of low and high chlorine content biphenyls, a significant difference was found for the low-chlorinated biphenyl concentrations between workers currently …


POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) AND POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS (PBBs): BIOCHEMISTRY, TOXICOLOGY, AND MECHANISM OF ACTION Authors: Stephen Safe Department of Physiology and Texas A and M University College Station, Texas Pharmacology Kcfcrce: Otto Hutringer Departmcnt of Ecological Chemi\try and Gcochcrni\try Univcrhity of Bayreuth Bayreuth.

PCB, a mixture of synthetic substances known in Italy under the trade names of Apirolioor Askarel, has been widely used around the world for about 50 years as insulation in transformers and other electrical equipment (1927, first industrial application by Swan USA).

PCB- splashes of PCB-based fluids contaminated containers due to mishandling or and equipment such as accidents metal drums.PCB WASTES Liquid PCB Waste Non-Porous Solid Waste • PCB-based dielectric fluids Porous Solid Waste • PCB equipment such as removed from transformers • Materials used in cleaning capacitors.

Me encuentro en una evaluación de requisitos y métodos para la determinación de PCB`s en aceites dieléctricos. Esto me crea la necesidad de conocer de primera mano la ASTM D4059: “Test Method for Analisys of Polyclorinated Biphenyls in Insulating Liquids by Gas Chromatography”.

To increase the rate of aerobic biodegradation of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs an additional source of carbon, for example a small amount of un-substituted PCDD or biphenyls , carbazole , o-dichlorobenzene or benzoic acid or 3-methoxybenzoic can be used.

O PCB, mistura de substâncias sintéticas conhecida na Itália sob as designações comerciais de Apirolioou Ascarel, tem sido amplamente utilizado em todo o mundo há cerca de 50 anos como isolante nos transformadores e outros dispositivos elétricos (1927, primeira aplicação industrial Swan EUA).

Abstract. Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio).

Published in: Occupational and Environmental Medicine · 1981Authors: M Maroni · A Colombi · S Cantoni · E Ferioli · V FoaAbout: Polychlorinated biphenyl · Electricity · Absorption · Pollution · Gas chromatography · W…

PCB congeners differ by up to one to two orders of magnitude in their water solubilities, vapor pressures, Kow values, and Henry’s Law constants. Thus, although all the dioxin-like PCB congeners are poorly soluble in water and have very low vapor pressures, they will volatilize and leach at different rates.

PCB was first synthesised in the laboratory (Griefs, Germany) in 1867.In 1929, the first production took place with the first industrial application by Swann Chemical Co. in Anniston (Alabama, USA), later absorbed by Monsanto Chemical Co. , USA, in 1935.

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PCB’s have long been recognised as posing a threat to the environment because of their toxicity, persistence and tendency to bioaccumulate (i.e. to build up in the bodies of animals, particularly at the top of the food chain).

—– –FOREWORD– The PCB Q & A Manual has been prepared to assist the user in answering frequently asked questions on the PCB regulations. It is a quick source of information that will be updated as new rules and policies become final.

Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations. Maroni M, Colombi A, Cantoni S, Ferioli E, Foa V. Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio).


Apirolio Diaclor No-Flamol Areclor Duconol Pydraul Aroclor Dykanol Pyralene Arubren Elemex Pyranol Asbestol Euracel Pyroclor Askarel Fenchlor Phenoclor Bakola Hivar Saf-T-Khul Biclor Hydol Santotherm Chlorextol Inclor Santovac Chlorinol Iterteen Siclonyl Chlorphen Kennechlor Solvol Clophen Montar Sovol Delor Nepolin Therminol Table 3.

Polychlorované bifenyly (PCB, PCBs) jsou skupinou perzistentních látek vznikajících chlorací bifenylů


que en 1979 se prohibiese en Estados Unidos la fabricación, venta y distribución de PCB, entre 1980 y 1984 la producción mundial se mantuvo en 16 000 toneladas al año y entre 1984 y 1989, en 10 000 toneladas. Por las ventajas de sus características físicas y químicas, los usos de los PCB se pueden clasificar como cerrados o abiertos.

Bifenilos policlorados, em geral conhecidos por PCB (do inglês polychlorinated biphenyl) e, no Brasil, pelo nome comercial Ascarel, constituem uma classe de compostos organoclorados resultantes da adição de átomos de cloro ao bifenilo, composto esse formado por anéis aromáticos ligados por uma ligação simples carbono-carbono.

Materiales Peligrosos – Download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online. Hazmat

Take special The risk of PCB contamination can be minimized by precautions for analyzing the risk of spillage associated with each continued use. individual PCB unit and by taking steps to contain the potential uncontrolled loss of PCBs from the unit.

A polychlorinated biphenyl ( PCB ) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C 12 H 10−x Cl x . Polychlorinated biphenyls were once widely deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids.

For instance, the use of PCB-containing products is allowed in Japan until the expiration date of the products. It is reported that in the past, PCBs were also used as sealants in …

A study of capacitor workers showed PCB- exposure measurements ranging from 48 to 275 µg/m 3 in workroom air and 2 to 28 µg/cm 2 for Pyralene® 3010 or Apirolio® on the skin of the palms (Maroni et al. 1981a, b). Of 80 exposed workers, 16 exhibited evidence of liver involvement including asymptomatic hepatomegaly and/or elevated serum SGTP

PCB stands for biphenyl/polychlorinated biphenyls. PCB is defined as biphenyl/polychlorinated biphenyls rarely. PCB stands for biphenyl/polychlorinated biphenyls. Printer friendly. Menu Search MANUFACTURA Aceclor Adkarel ALC Apirolio Apirorlio Arochlor Arochlors Aroclor Aroclors Arubren Asbestol ASK Askael Askarel Auxol Bakola


PCB se také p řidávaly do maziv, olej ů a vosk ů, používaly se také jako rozpoušt ědla inkoust ů (kopírky), byly obsaženy v lepidlech, tmelech a samozhášecích p řísadách.

Commercial PCB mixtures were marketed as Apirolio in Italy, Ascarel in Brazil, Aroclor by Monsanto in USA and UK, Asbestol in USA, Askarel in USA and UK, Bakola131 in USA, Chlorextol in USA, Clophen by Bayer in Germany, Delor in Czechoslovakia, Fenclor in Italy, Hydol in USA, Inerteen by Westinghouse in the USA, Kanechlor by Kanegafuchi in

Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™. Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC): Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) = 6.98 Log Kow (Exper. database match) = 6.75 Exper.

A clear explanation, however, holds. The Caffaro was a chemical factory that, between 1930 and 1984, produced PCBs and PCB mixtures, such as Fenclor and Apirolio. Not surprisingly, Donato et al. (2006) found high serum levels of PCB


14. Prominent trade names of PCB products include those listed below. (See annex I for a more detailed list of PCB trade names and synonyms and section IV.D of the present report for considerations regarding precautions to take when using trade names in inventory exercises.) Apirolio (Italy) Aroclor (United States) Clophen (Germany)


Individual, pure congeners of PCB and PCT are colourless, often crystal­ line compounds, but commercial PCBs are mixtures of these congeners with a clear, light yelldw or dark colour, and range from oily liquids to waxy or hard solids. They do not crystallize at low temperatures, but tum into solid resins.


Compilation of PCB applications for owners and public officials 5 PCB applications The following applications are listed in alphabetic order. Ceiling tiles In Germany and Switzerland, it has been reported the use of acoustic ceiling tiles impregnated with 20% Clophen A50 or A60. The tiles were called “Wilhelmi” and were

Two PCBs containing insulating oil samples from stored Chinese electrical capacitors have been determined with the same methodology for comparability. The total concentration PCBs in two oil samples were 790 000 μg g −1 and 720 000 μg g −1 , respectively.

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